In-vitro anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic potential of endophytic fungi associated with Ficus religiosa
Keywords:Endophytes, medicinal plant, secondary metabolites, phytochemicals, anti-oxidants, alpha-amylase inhibitors
Endophytic fungi are capable of producing plethora of important secondary metabolites, previously known from medicinal plants, thereby raising the potential of exploring endophytes as alternate sources for these metabolites. In the present investigation, ten endophytic fungi were isolated from Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) and the extracts obtained from fungi were evaluated for their potential as anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic agents. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed presence of phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes and terpenoids. Anti-oxidant and anti- diabetic activities of the extracts were tested by DPPH free radical scavenging assay and alpha amylase inhibitory assay, respectively. In general, all the extracts showed moderate inhibition of DPPH thereby providing an insight that extracts have a good proton-donating ability and could be potential free radical inhibitors. Similarly, moderate inhibition of alpha amylase was shown by all the extracts suggesting their possible role in reducing the breakdown and flow of glucose from complex dietary carbohydrates into the bloodstream. Among the ten fungi tested, Curvularia lunata displayed the highest anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities.
Alqahtani AS, Hidayathulla S, Rehman MT, ElGamal AA, Al-Massarani S, Razmovski-Naumovski V, Alqahtani MS, El Dib RA, AlAjmi MF (2019) Alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential of 3-oxolupenal and katononic acid isolated from Nuxia oppositifolia. Biomolecules 10(1):61. https://doi.org/10.3390/biom10010061
Bacon CW, White J (2000) Microbial endophytes. CRC press, Boca Raton.
Bhardwaj A, Sharma D, Jadon N, Agrawal PK (2015) Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of endophytic fungi isolated from spikes of Pinusroxburghii. Archives of Clinical Microbiology 6 (3):19.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C (1995) Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT Food Science Technology 28:25-30.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
da Silva M, Cueva-Yesquén LG, Júnior SB, Garcia VL, Sartoratto A, de Angelis DF, de Angelis DA (2020) Endophytic fungi from Passiflora incarnata: an antioxidant compound source. Archives of microbiology 202(10):2779–2789. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-02001-y
Devi NN, Prabakaran JJ, WahabF (2012). Phytochemical analysis and enzyme analysis of endophytic fungi from Centella asiatica. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2:S1280–S1284. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60400-6
Government of India, Ministry of Ayush (2016) The ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India. Pharmacopoeia Commission for Indian Medicine & Homoeopathy, pp. 17-20.
Halliwel B, Guttridge JM (1989) Free radicals in biology and medicine, 2nd ed. Clarendon Press, London.
Hallmann J, Berg G, Schulz B (2006) Isolation procedures for endophytic microorganisms. In: Schulz BJE, Boyle CJC, Sieber TN (eds) Microbial Root Endophytes. Soil Biology, vol 9. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-33526-9_17
Harborne JB (1998) Phytochemical methods A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall Limited, 3rd ed. London, pp 142-175.
Ji HF, Li XJ, Zhang HY (2009) Natural products and drug discovery. EMBO Reports 10:194-200. https://doi.org/10.1038/embor.2009.12
Kaaniche F, Hamed A, Abdel-Razek AS, Wibberg D, Abdissa N, El Euch IZ, et al. (2019) Bioactive secondary metabolites from new endophytic fungus Curvularia. sp isolated from Rauwolfia macrophylla. PLoS ONE 14(6), e0217627. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0217627
Khiralla A, Spina R, Saliba S, Laurain-Mattar D (2019) Diversity of natural products of the genera Curvularia and Bipolaris. Fungal Biology Reviews 33:101-122 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbr.2018.09.002
Kusari S, Hertweck C, Spiteller M (2012) Chemical ecology of endophytic fungi: origins of secondary metabolites. Chemistry & Biology 19(7):792–798. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.06.004
Manganyi MC, Ateba CN (2020) Untapped potentials of endophytic fungi: A review of novel bioactive compounds with biological applications. Microorganisms 8(12):1934. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121934
Manzocco L, Anese M, Nicoli MC (1998) Antioxidant properties of tea extracts as affected by processing. LWT - Food Science and Technology 31(7-8):694-698 https://doi.org/10.1006/fstl.1998.0491
Mehta JL, Rasouli N, Sinha AK, Molavi B (2006) Oxidative stress in diabetes: a mechanistic overview of its effects on atherogenesis and myocardial dysfunction. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 38(5-6):794–803. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.12.008
Mishra PD, Verekar SA, Kulkarni-Almeida A, Roy S K, Jain S, Balakrishnan A, Vishwakarma R, Deshmuk SK (2013) Anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic naphthoquinones from an endophytic fungus Dendryphion nanum (Nees) S. Hughes. Indian Journal of Chemistry Section B 52:565-567.
Nair SS, Kavrekar V, Mishra A (2013) In-vitro studies on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts. European Journal of Experimental Biology 3(1):128-132.
Roglic G (2016) WHO Global report on diabetes: a summary. International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases 1:3-8.
Singh D, Singh B, Goel R (2011) Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Ficus religiosa: a review. Journal of ethnopharmacology 134:565-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.046
Somogyi A, Rosta K, Pusztai P, Tulassay Z, Nagy G (2007) Antioxidant measurements. Physiological measurement 28(4):R41–55. https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/28/4/R01
Strobel G, Daisy B (2003) Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 67(4):491–502. https://doi.org/10.1128/MMBR.67.4.491-502.2003
Tiwari P, Gupta R (2020) Preliminary phytochemical screening of bark (powder) extracts of Ficus religiosa (peepal) plant. International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy & Life Sciences 9(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.47128/IJRDPL.2278-0238.2020.9(1).1-9
Tiwari P, Nathiya R, Mahalingam G (2017) Antidiabetic activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Ficus Religiosa. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 10(4):59-61. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i4.14718
Uttara B, Singh AV, Zamboni P, Mahajan R(2009) Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative diseases: A review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options. Current Neuropharmacology 7(1):65–74. https://doi.org/10.2174/157015909787602823
Vimalkumar CS, Hosagaudar VB, Suja SR, Vilash V, Krishnakumar NM, Latha PG (2014) Comparative preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Olea dioica Roxb., infected with the rust fungus Zaghouania oleae (E.J. Butler) Cummins and non-infected plants. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 3(4):69-72.
Weseler AR, Bast A (2010) Oxidative stress and vascular function: implications for pharmacologic treatments. Current hypertension reports 12(3):154–161. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-010-0103-9
White TJ, Bruns TD, Lee SB, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA enes for phylogenetics. In: Innis, MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds.), PCR Protocols: A guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 315-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1
Yadav M, Yadav A, Yadav J P (2014) In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of endophytic fungi isolated from Eugenia jambolana Lam. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine 7(S1):S256–S261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60242-X
Zhang YJ, Zhang S, Liu XZ, Wen HA,Wang M (2010) A simple method of genomic DNA extraction suitable for analysis of bulk fungal strains. Letters in applied microbiology 51(1):114–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.02867.x
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Kottapalli Kameswara Jayant, Buddhan Sundaram Vijayakumar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.