Determination of the peridium thickness of Tuber magnatum ascomata from Molise region.

Authors

  • Pamela Monaco University of Molise - Department of Biosciences and Territory
  • Gino Naclerio University of Molise - Department of Biosciences and Territory
  • Antonio Bucci Department of Biosciences and Territory - University of Molise
  • Antonietta Mello Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection (IPSP), Turin Unit, National Research Council

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2531-7342/13052

Keywords:

white truffle, fruiting body, external surface, morphological traits, light microscope, Central-Southern Italy

Abstract

Several studies focused on Tuber magnatum, the most valuable truffle species, with a limited geographical distribution. However, no comprehensive information on the thickness of its peridium (the external surface of fruiting bodies) is available. Accordingly, to fill this lack of information and in order to provide a more in-depth morphological characterisation of white truffle populations from Molise region (one of the Italian richest areas of truffles), the peridium thickness of twenty-one T. magnatum ascomata collected from two different study sites was measured by light microscope observations. A considerable variability within the analysed populations emerged, with values ranging from 271.25 µm (minimum) to 1231.25 µm (maximum), and an average peridium thickness of 622.33 µm. Interestingly, significant differences were observed between the two groups, with truffles harvested in an inner area of the region showing a peridium significantly thinner than those collected on the border with Abruzzo region. No linear correlation between peridium thickness and other morphological parameters (ascoma weight and maturity) emerged. It is likely that the differences observed between the two T. magnatum populations could be related to factors such as soil characteristics, site-specific features, genetic traits, as well as truffle collection period, which should be properly investigated.

 

References

Angelini P, Bricchi E, Akhtar MS, Properzi A, Fleming JLE, Trillini B, Venanzoni R (2016) Isolation and identification of allelochemicals from ascocarp of Tuber species. In: Plant, soil and microbes. Mechanisms and molecular interactions (Hakeem KR, Akhtar MS, eds), vol 2. Springer, Cham, pp. 225-252. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29573-2_11

Amicucci A, Barbieri E, Sparvoli V, Gioacchini AM, Calcabrini C, Palma F, Stocchi V, Zambonelli A (2018) Microbial and pigment profile of the reddish patch occurring within Tuber magnatum ascomata. Fungal Biology 122:1134-1141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2018.07.007

Bach C, Beacco P, Cammaletti P, Babel-Chen Z, Levesque E, Todesco F, Cotton C, Robin B, Murat C (2021) First production of Italian white truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico) ascocarps in an orchard outside its natural range distribution in France. Mycorrhiza 31:383-388. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-020-01013-2

Barbieri E, Ceccaroli P, Saltarelli R, Guidi C, Potenza L, Basaglia M, Fontana F, Baldan E, Casella S, Ryahi O, Zambonelli A, Stocchi V (2010) New evidence for nitrogen fixation within the Italian white truffle Tuber magnatum. Fungal Biology 114:936-942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2010.09.001

Barbieri E, Guidi C, Bertaux J, Frey-Klett P, Garbaye J, Ceccaroli P, Saltarelli R, Zambonelli A, Stocchi V (2007) Occurrence and diversity of bacterial communities in Tuber magnatum during truffle maturation. Environmental Microbiology 9:2234-2246. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01338.x

Belfiori B, D’Angelo V, Riccioni C, Leonardi M, Paolocci F, Pacioni G, Rubini A (2020) Genetic structure and phylogeography of Tuber magnatum populations. Diversity 12:44. https://doi.org/10.3390/d12020044

Büntgen U, Bagi I, Fekete O, Molinier V, Peter M, Splivallo R, Vahdatzadeh M, Richard F, Murat C, Tegel W, Stobbe U, Martínez-Peña F, Sproll L, Hülsmann L, Nievergelt D, Meier B, Egli S (2017) New insights into the complex relationship between weight and maturity of Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum). Plos One 12:e0170375. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170375

Christopolous V, Psoma P, Diamandis S (2013) Site characteristics of Tuber magnatum in Greece. Acta Mycologica 48:27-32. https://doi.org/10.5586/am.2013.004

Garcia-Barreda S, Sánchez S, Marco P, Benucci GMN, González V (2021) Lack of linkages among fruiting depth, weight, and maturity in irrigated truffle fungi marks the complexity of relationships among morphogenetic stages. Journal of Fungi 7:102. https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7020102

Hall IR, Brown GT, Zambonelli A (2007) Taming the truffle: the history, lore, and science of the ultimate mushroom. Timber Press, Portland.

Iotti M, Leonardi M, Lancellotti E, Salerni E, Oddis M, Leonardi P, Perini C, Pacioni G, Zambonelli A (2014) Spatio-temporal dynamic of Tuber magnatum mycelium in natural truffle grounds. Plos One 9:e115921. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115921

Laruccia N, Marletto V, Leonardi P, Puliga F, Zambonelli A (2020) Map of suitability for the spontaneous growth of Tuber magnatum in Emilia-Romagna (Italy). Italian Journal of Mycology 49:38-53. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2531-7342/10832

Marjanović Ž, Glišić A, Mutavdžić D, Saljnikov E, Bragato G (2015) Ecosystems supporting Tuber magnatum Pico production in Serbia experience specific soil environment seasonality that may facilitate truffle lifecycle completion. Applied Soil Ecology 95:179-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.05.007

Mello A, Murat C, Bonfante P (2006) Truffles: much more than a prized and local fungal delicacy. FEMS Microbiology Letters 260:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00252.x

Mello A, Murat C, Vizzini A, Gavazza V, Bonfante P (2005) Tuber magnatum Pico, a species of limited geographical distribution: its genetic diversity inside and outside a truffle ground. Environmental Microbiology 7:55-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00678.x

Monaco P, Bucci A, Naclerio G, Mello A (2021) Heterogeneity of the white truffle Tuber magnatum in a limited geographic area of Central-Southern Italy. Environmental Microbiology Reports. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12956

Monaco P, Toumi M, Sferra G, Tóth E, Naclerio G, Bucci A (2020) The bacterial communities of Tuber aestivum: preliminary investigations in Molise region, Southern Italy. Annals of Microbiology 70:37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13213-020-01586-5

Niimi J, Deveau A, Splivallo R (2021) Geographical-based variations in white truffle Tuber magnatum aroma is explained by quantitative differences in key volatile compounds. New Phytologist 230:1623-1638. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17259

Paolanti M, Paura B, Chirici G, Rivieccio R, Marchetti M (2014) Carta della potenzialità tartuficola in scala 1:100.000 della provincia di Isernia (Molise).

Riccioni C, Rubini A, Belfiori B, Gregori G, Paolocci F (2016) Tuber magnatum: the special one. What makes it so different from the other Tuber spp.? In: True truffle (Tuber spp.) in the world. Soil ecology, systematics and biochemistry (Zambonelli A, Iotti M, Murat C, eds), Soil Biology, vol. 47. Springer, Cham, pp. 87-103. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31436-5_6

Rubini A, Paolocci F, Riccioni C, Vendramin GG, Arcioni S (2005) Genetic and phylogeographic structures of the symbiotic fungus Tuber magnatum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71:6584-6589. https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.71.11.6584-6589.2005

Vita F, Giuntoli B, Bertolini E, Taiti C, Marone E, D’Ambrosio C, Trovato E, Sciarrone D, Zoccali M, Balestrini R, Scaloni A, Mondello L, Mancuso S, Alessio M, Alpi A (2020) Tuberomics: a molecular profiling for the adaption of edible fungi (Tuber magnatum Pico) to different natural environments. BMC Genomics 21:90. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6522-3

Vita F, Taiti C, Pompeiano A, Bazihizina N, Lucarotti V, Mancuso S, Alpi A (2015) Volatile organic compounds in truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico): comparison of samples from different regions of Italy and from different seasons. Scientific Reports 5:12629. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep12629

Zambonelli A, Rivetti C, Percudani R, Ottonello S (2000) TuberKey: a delta-based tool for the description and interactive identification of truffles. Mycotaxon 74:57-76.

Downloads

Published

2021-07-27

How to Cite

Monaco, P., Naclerio, G., Bucci, A., & Mello, A. (2021). Determination of the peridium thickness of Tuber magnatum ascomata from Molise region. Italian Journal of Mycology, 50, 92–98. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.2531-7342/13052

Issue

Section

Articles