Metabolic profiling of antimicrobial secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3 isolated from electronic wastes in Algeria


  • Dounya Achwak Chemmam Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Nature and Life Sciences, University of Jijel, Jijel, 18000. Algeria
  • Ghania Bourzama Biochemistry and Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences, Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba, 23000. Algeria
  • Nouari Sadrati Characterization and Valorization of Natural Resources Laboratory, Faculty of Nature and Life and Earth Sciences and the Universes, University Mohamed El Bachir El Ibrahimi of Bordj Bou Arreridj, 34000. Algeria
  • Moussa Houhamdi Biology, Water and Environment Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences of Nature and Life and Sciences of the Earth and the Universe, University 8 Mai 1945, Guelma, 24000. Algeria



Antimicrobial activity, Electronic waste, GC-MS, Penicillium bilaiae, Secondary metabolites


Penicillium species research has progressed far beyond their ability to produce secondary metabolites with potential biological applications, particularly as antimicrobial agents. In this work, Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3 was isolated from electronic waste and identified using morphological and molecular (ITS and β-tubulin regions) methods. For 15 days, Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3 was grown into Czapek Yeast Broth using an orbital shaker. Finally, the secondary metabolites in this strain’s filtrates were extracted using ethyl acetate. The agar well diffusion method tested this crude extract for antimicrobial activity. The Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3 extract exhibited strong antimicrobial potential against all tested microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. With diameters of 31, 26, and 25 mm, the largest inhibition zones were observed against C. albicans, S. aureus, and E. faecalis, respectively. The presence of 24 active compounds was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the crude extract of Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3. The findings suggest that the secondary metabolite extract of Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3 could be a promising active pharmaceutical component.


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How to Cite

Chemmam, D. A., Bourzama, G., Sadrati, N., & Houhamdi, M. (2024). Metabolic profiling of antimicrobial secondary metabolites produced by Penicillium bilaiae EWB-3 isolated from electronic wastes in Algeria. Italian Journal of Mycology, 53(1), 13–28.